Background and aims: Present meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to synthesis a definitive conclusion from previous randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs).
Methods: A comprehensive search was done up to July 2020, in order to extract RCTs which investigated the effect of cashew nut on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate effect size. Meta regression analysis was done to identify probable sources of heterogeneity.
Results: Six clinical trials with 521 participants were included. Combined effect sizes demonstrated no effect of cashew consumption on weight (WMD): 0.02, 95% CI: -1.04, 1.09, P > 0.05), BMI (WMD: 0.1, 95% CI: -0.72, 0.74, P > 0.05), and WC (WMD: -0.13, 95% CI: -1.97, 1.70, P > 0.05). Results were also not significant for FBS (WMD: 3.58, 95% CI: -3.92, 11.08, P > 0.05), insulin (WMD: -0.19, 95% CI: -1.63, 1.25, P > 0.05), and HOMA-IR (WMD: 0.25, 95% CI: -0.55, 1.06, P > 0.05).
Conclusion: The sum up, incorporating cashew into the diet has no significant effect on body composition or modifying glycemic indices.